(Click Category to List Courses)

16 - CHM - Chemical and Process Engineering

CHM 140B - Urea Know How Workshop for Engineers (10 Days)

Code Start Date Duration Venue
CHM 140B 11 September 2023 10 Days Istanbul Registration Form Link
CHM 140B 06 November 2023 10 Days Istanbul Registration Form Link
CHM 140B 04 December 2023 10 Days Istanbul Registration Form Link
Please contact us for fees


Course Description

The commercial synthesis of urea is achieved by the reaction of ammonia and carbon dioxide at high pressure forming ammonium carbamate, which is then dehydrated by applying heat, forming urea and water.

It is profitably and cost effectively important that your team understand the fundamentals of Urea process plant operation and maintenance concepts and best implementation of Key Operational Excellence required to improve their production, maximise profitability, and maintain safe, reliable, and environmentally responsible operations in the Urea Plant.

This 10 day workshop covers all topics Urea Engineers need to know and designed for Process, Operational, Mechanical, Maintenance, Instrumentation, Process Control and Inspection Engineers, Leaders and Supervisors working in any kind of Urea Plant. 

Course Objectives

  • Guiding participates to develop key concepts and techniques for optimizing urea plant unit operations. 
  • Utilizing the key concepts to make operating decisions that can improve your unit’s performance.
  • Improving operational excellence, product recoveries, purities and energy utilization, safety & reliability. 
  • Realizing the basic fundamental principles of design and operation. 
  • Carrying out effective trouble shooting.
  • Recognizing the core building blocks of the urea plant in fertilizer complex. 
  • Identifying the core building blocks of the process systems, equipment and economics. 
  • Realizing the process unit operation fundamentals.
  • Utilizing of the process unit operation fundamentals safely.
  • Optimizing the operational Excellence aspects:  Safety, Reliability, Continuity of Operations, Quality, Cost, and People Development 

Who Should Attend?

  • Process and Operational Engineers 
  • Mechanical and Maintenance Engineers 
  • Reliability Engineers 
  • Inspection Engineers 
  • Instrumentation and Process Control Engineers 
  • Safety Engineers 
  • Projects & Technical services Engineers
  • Others involved in the design, operation,  modification or maintenance of Ammonia and Urea process plants

Course Details/Schedule

Day 1

  • Overview:  Fertilizer and Urea 
  • Value chain
  • Key players: licensors, contractors, suppliers
  • Overview Urea Process Technologies 
  • Urea product and market information
  • Various process technologies currently in operation  (Conventional, Stamicarbon, Saipem, TEC, UCSA)
  • Challenges in urea plants
  • Corrosion in carbamate solutions
  • Theory of corrosion in ammonium carbamate solutions
  • Overview of various corrosion phenomena in urea plants
  • Cases of various types of corrosion
  • Effect of oxygen, temperature, carbamate, N/C ratio,  pressure, temperature on corrosion rates
  • How to detect active corrosion?

Day 2

  • Urea plants Materials of construction 
  • Historical overview of applied materials
  • The typical properties of materials applied in urea plants 
  • Which materials to apply in specific process conditions?
  • Corrosion Inspection in urea plants
  • Inspection techniques
  • Setting up Inspection Programs; Risk Based Inspection 

Day 3

  • Thermodynamics and Phase diagrams
  • Parameters (CO2 conversion, alfa, N/C, H/C, H/U)
  • System pressure, inert pressure
  • Liquid isotherms
  • Top ridge line
  • Fraction approach to equilibrium
  • CO2 versus NH3 strippers
  • Quality Aspects of Urea Prill 
  • What is caking and how it can be avoided?
  • Crushing strength, impact strength
  • Segregation
  • How to influence moisture content
  • Bulk flow coolers
  • Revamping prilling towers

Day 4

  • Urea plants Operational Aspects 
  • Control philosophy of various sections
  • Key performance indicators
  • Main calculations
  • Key analysis for process control
  • Key analysis for corrosion control
  • Explosion diagrams
  • What to do when …
  • Urea Plants Troubleshooting 
  • General troubleshooting techniques
  • Corrosion and failure cases
  • Process upset cases
  • Fouling cases

Day 5

  • Safety, Health & Environmental aspects
  • Reliability aspects
  • Safety and health concerns
  • Emission sources (continuous and discontinuous)
  • Flare systems, containment systems
  • Safety valves
  • Revamp technologies
  • Capacity increase
  • Energy conservation
  • Emission reduction
  • New developments
  • Solid heat exchanger revamp opportunities
  • Energy reduction management
  • References

Day 6

  • High Pressure Synthesis equipment
  • Process aspects
  • Mechanical aspects
  • Multi-layer or solid wall, Low or high strength steels
  • Leak Detection Systems for vessels and heat exchangers
  • Tube failures
  • Gaskets and bolting
  • How to assure a high reliability of critical equipment
  • Corrosion cases caused by failing leak detection systems
  • Failure modes High Pressure Equipment
  • Reactor, condenser and stripper failure modes
  • Heating up / cooling down, stop – starts and blocking in
  • Baffle hammering problems and effects of different loads
  • Effect of temperature and partial oxygen pressure
  • Effect of liquid distribution

Day 7

  • CO2 Compressors
  • Phase and Mollier Diagram CO2
  • Different type of CO2 compressors
  • Revamping CO2 compressors
  • Operating problems in CO2 compressor
  • Troubleshooting compressor problems
  • HP reciprocating Pumps
  • Design stuffing box
  • Materials of construction
  • Vibration issues
  • HP Piping & Valves
  • Typical corrosion failure modes HP piping
  • Features HP control and manual valves
  • Maintenance practices
  • Safety valves in urea plants

Day 8

  • Atmospheric Corrosion (CUI)
  • Forms of atmospheric corrosion
  • Preventive measures
  • Casuistry in urea and urea plants
  • Corrosion/fouling aspects utilities
  • Corrosion control in boiler feed water and steam systems
  • Root cause of typical failure modes and preventive measures
  • Corrosion and fouling control in cooling water systems
  • Overview of inhibitor systems
  • Cases of typical failure modes and preventive measures

Day 9

  • Carrying out repairs
  • Finding a leak
  • Repair procedures of various materials of construction
  • Plugging heat exchanger tubes (POP-A-PLUG)
  • Relining projects
  • Chloride SCC => what to do …
  • Manufacturing of HP equipment
  • Design aspects HP reactors and HP heat exchangers
  • Which codes and standards
  • Fabrication sequence, post weld heat treatments
  • Selection criteria of fabricator
  • Expediting and Inspection aspects
  • Quality assurance HP equipment & HP piping components

Day 10

  • Cases
  • Nitrate SCC in pressure bearing part of reactor
  • Gaskets & bolting
  • Failure of a high pressure weldolet
  • How to find a leak?
  • High pressure safety valves
  • Catastrophic failures
  • NH3 storage tank inspection
  • Atmospheric and utility corrosion cases