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11 - CHM - Chemical and Process Engineering

CHM 170 - Liquefied Gas Handling Principles on Ships and in Terminals

Code Start Date Duration Venue
CHM 170 15 August 2022 5 Days Istanbul Registration Form Link
CHM 170 10 October 2022 5 Days Istanbul Registration Form Link
CHM 170 05 December 2022 5 Days Istanbul Registration Form Link
Please contact us for fees


Course Description

A liquefied gas is the liquid form of a substance which, at ambient temperature and at atmospheric pressure, would be a gas. Most liquefied gases are hydrocarbons and the key property that makes hydrocarbons the world’s primary energy source — combustibility — also makes them inherently hazardous. Because these gases are handled in large quantities it is imperative that all practical steps are taken to minimise leakage and to limit all sources of ignition. 

This 5 day course provides greater detail about the liquefied gases carried by sea and it concludes with advice on the safety issues involving the ship, the terminal and the ship/shore interface. The latter point is of the utmost importance as this is where ship and shore personnel meet to plan safe operations. This course provides details about gas carrier cargoes and the equipment utilised on the ship and at the terminal jetty. It also covers operational and emergency procedures. Questions of health and safety are also covered. 

A thorough understanding of the basic principles outlined in this course will help ensure safer operations, better cargo planning and the efficient use of equipment found on gas carriers and on jetties.

Course Objectives

  • Identifying and understanding of basic chemistry and physics 
  • Realizing the liquefied gas tanker design, systems, and equipment.
  • Performing and monitoring all cargo operations safely
  • Recognizing the physical and chemical properties of liquefied gas cargoes 
  • Taking precautions to prevent hazards and Responding to emergencies 
  • Applying occupational health and safety precautions 
  • Taking precautions to prevent pollution of the environment 
  • Monitoring and controlling compliance with legislative requirements 
  • Describing marine terminal operations and explain the various product specifications
  • Recognizing the role and importance of quality assurance, control and work permit system
  • Discussing ship shore interface and apply supervision, control and communication 

Who Should Attend?

  • Loading master
  • Loading supervisors
  • Process, production, operation, oil movement and storage engineers
  • Chief engineer 
  • Any person with immediate responsibility for loading, discharging , care in transit, handling of cargo, tank cleaning or other cargo related operations on liquefied gas tankers.

Course Details/Schedule

Day 1

  • Properties of liquefied gases 
  • The gases chemical and physical properties
  • Inert gas and nitrogen
  • Suppression of flammability by inert gas
  • Sources of ignition
  • Ideal gas laws 
  • LPG and LNG production
  • Production of chemical gases (vinyl chloride, ethylene and ammonia)
  • The ship/shore interface and jetty standards 
  • Safe jetty designs and operations  

Day 2

  • Principles of gas carrier design: Design standards and ship types, the gas carrier codes
  • Materials of construction and insulation: Tank insulation 
  • Certification: Surveys and certification: certificate of fitness 
  • Instrumentation and emergency shut-down (ESD) systems
  • Linked Emergency shut-down systems
  • Relief valves for cargo tanks and pipelines 
  • Reliquefaction plants and boil-off system and control 
  • Inert gas and nitrogen systems

Day 3

  • The terminal — equipment and instrumentation 
  • Cargo transfer systems: hard arms (loading arms), vapour return, and insulating flanges.
  • Shore storage:  Refrigerated storage at atmospheric pressure, pressure relief venting
  • Construction materials and design, pumps, compressors and heat exchangers
  • The ship/shore interface
  • Supervision and control & ship/shore safety check list 
  • Communications and operational considerations
  • Berthing and mooring
  • Connection and disconnection of cargo hoses and hard arms
  • Cargo handling procedures
  • Cargo surveyors, bunkering, and work permits 

Day 4

  • Cargo handling operations sequence of operations, tank inspection, drying and inerting
  • Gassing-up at sea using liquid from deck storage tanks gassing-up and cool-down 
  • Loading: procedures, Control of vapours during loading bulk loading, cargo tank loading limits 
  • Operation of the reliquefaction plant, LNG boil-off as fuel.
  • Inerting — after discharge, aerating,  ammonia — special procedures
  • Cargo measurement and calculation
  • Ship/shore calculation procedures cargo documentation
  • Principles for liquefied gases, LNG quantification

Day 5

  • The principal hazards, flammability , vaporisation of spilled liquid, toxicity and toxic products of combustion 
  • Liquefied gas fires, liquid (pool) fires, fires in compressor rooms, alarm procedures
  • Emergency procedures terminal and  ship emergency procedures
  • Emergency shut-down (ESD) — ship/shore links emergency release systems (ERS)
  • Cargo hazards , flammability, operational aspects, emergency aspects
  • Air deficiency, toxicity, asphyxia (suffocation) 
  • Entry into enclosed spaces procedures, precautions for tank