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15 - EEE - Electrical & Electronics Engineering


EEE 187 - Image Sensor Technologies: CMOS and CCD

Please contact us for fees

 

Course Description

Highly sophisticated CMOS image sensors are key components of modern cameras. Technology as well as device architectures are optimized to obtain peak performance of the image sensor and the camera system. The most advanced CMOS image sensors show pixel sizes beyond 1 µm. The imagers demonstrate a light sensitivity comparable to that of the human eye.

This is an advanced course focusing on the solid-state image sensor technology. It is intended for the specialists in the field. A very good background of digital imaging is needed to get the most out of this course.

Course Objectives

  • Discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the shared pixels
  • Comparing pixels with different transistors 
  • Explaining about the noise limiting factors 
  • Performing noise measurement tools and diagnostic tools as well
  • Highlighting background of the passivation issues 
  • Discussing one of the most appealing techniques to measure the distance of object in front of the camera

 

Who Should Attend?

  • Scientists
  • Engineers
  • Managers involved with high performance CCD and CMOS imaging sensors

Course Details/Schedule

Day 1

  • What is an image sensor  
  • Sensor performance metrics: quantum efficiency, noise dark current,
  • Resolution (spatial, light-intensity, time) , Signal-to-Noise Ratio PRNU, DRNU
  • Semiconductor materials in the electronics industry (an overview)
  • Optical properties of semiconductors (direct and indirect band gap)
  • PN junction under illumination
  • Why we use silicon in image sensor technology (but not GaAs or InP or GaN….)

Day 2

  • CCD (Charge Coupled Device) operational principles (MOS capacitor)
  • Structure and manufacturing process (pixel size restrictions)
  • Architecture variations (full frame, frame transfer, interline transfer) 
  • ICCD ( Intensified CCD) ; EMCCD (Electron Multiplying CCD)
  • Noise sources in CCD 

Day 3

  • Why CMOS 
  • CMOS technology overview (manufacturing, Moore’s law, state-of-the-art)  
  • CMOS photo sensors 
  • CMOS building blocks within a pixel (current source, photodiode, source follower..)
  • Noise sources 

Day 4

  • CMOS image sensor chip architectures
  • Readout circuits (Analog buffers, Sample and Hold, ADCs) 
  • Timing circuits
  • Chip output drivers (LVDS etc)
  • Radiation hardening techniques applied to CMOS image sensors (by design, by layout...) 

Day 5

  • Packaging issues
  • Back-Side Illumination
  • Correction methods
  • Testing
  • Emerging technologies