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34 - TCM - Telecommunications Technologies

TCM 510 - Microwave Transmission Engineering and Link Planning

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Course Description

At the end of this course the student will understand the essentials of Transmission engineering and will be able to design and manage microwave networks. This course is designed to teach students the essence of microwave path planning. Once completed they will be able to design and maintain cost effective solutions. The students will also be learn how to design paths that will not suffer from interference, or disturb other radio systems in the vicinity. 

Basic understanding of telecommunication is needed. 

The minimum number of participants required is 4 pax.

Course Objectives

  • Understanding why a certain link or network is not functioning as per performance specifications
  • Being able to successfully resolve them
  • Be able to select the best component for the network
  • Having the knowledge to optimize and improve the network performance and quality

Course Overview

  • This training course provides the student with a strong background in the area of planning telecommunication transmission networks using modern Radio-relay Digital Microwave radio.
  • The course covers in detail all the important aspects of radio propagation, starting from free-space loss and absorption loss, followed by statistical analysis of various phenomena impairing radio reception process - rain, multipath fading (both flat and selective), K-factor variation and ducting.
  • The introductory part of the course also reviews basic parameters of the microwave radio systems, antenna, transmission lines and all other auxiliary equipment used during implementation of microwave radio-relay sites.
  • Classroom discussion of all the above topics will be complemented by interactive student exercises.
  • The course concludes with a guide to several ITU-T/ITU-R references, students can access for additional information.


Who Should Attend?

  • Telecommunications professionals
  • Transmission engineers
  • Network planners
  • Technical project managers who are involved in the area of planning, deployment, commissioning or operation of modern Radio-relay Digital Microwave Radio.
  • Individuals interested in microwave communication systems 

Course Details/Schedule

Day 1

Introduction and Basic Definitions 

  • Available RF Spectrum 
  • Hierarchy in Transmission Networks 
  • Exercise 1 
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU) 
  • Transmission Media 
  • Terrestrial Radio-relay links 
  • MW versus Optic Fibre 
  • Mobile Transmission Networks 
  • Logarithmic Units 
  • Exercise 2 
  • Synchronization 
  • Exercise 3 
  • Jitter and Wonder

Microwave Link Planning 

  • RR Network and System Specification 
  • Map study and preparation of path profiles 
  • Field survey and site determination 
  • Determination of Antenna Heights 
  • Path Calculations 
  • Performance and availability 
  • Frequency Spectrum Allocation 
  • Equipment Specifications & Selection 
    • MW Radio 
    • Digital Modulation
    • Exercise 4
    • Receiver Sensitivity
    • Signal Equalizers
    • Forward Error Correction (FEC)
    • Scrambling and Interleaving
    • Network Management
    • Types of Antenna
    • Antenna Gain
    • VSWR, Cross-polarization Discrimination 
    • Radiation Pattern
    • Exercise 5
    • Typical Antenna Characteristics
    • Near Field versus Far Field
    • Antenna Misalignment
    • Transmission Lines (Feeders)
    • Power Supply
    • Towers and Masts
    • Shelters and Containers
    • Auxiliary Equipment
    • Economical Considerations

Day 2

Link Budget Calculation 

  • Transmission and Reception 
  • Exercise 6 
  • Link Budget with Branching Circuitry 

Microwave Propagation 

  • Free Space Propagation 
  • Atmospheric Absorption 
  • Rain Attenuation 
  • Exercise 7 
  • Atmospheric Refraction
    • Refractive Ray Bending 
    • Radio and Optical Refractivity
    • Gradient of Refractive Index
  • Anomalous Propagation 
  • Exercise 8
    • Substandard Refraction 
    • Ducting and Blackout Fade
  • Fresnel Zones Concept 
    • Clearance Criteria
  • Terrain Related Effects
    • Reflections (Analysis and Countermeasures)
    • Diffraction
  • Exercise 9 
  • Multipath Fading Mechanism-Flat Fading
    • Vigants
    • Barnet Model
    • Exercise 10
    • ITU-R Rec. P.530-7
    • Frequency Selective Fading
    • Applicable Fade Margins
    • Radio Signature Curves
    • Exercise 11
  • Case study with SW Planning Tool Pathloss v.4.0

Day 3

Link Engineering 
  • Site Selection Considerations
  • Map Study 
  • Site Position Determination 
  • Path Profiles 
  • Path Clearance Criteria 
  • Case Study with SW Planning Tool Pathloss v.4.0 
Field Survey 
  • Site Survey
  • Path Survey 

Day 4

Link Performance and Availability Considerations 

  • Basic Definitions of Reliability, Performance and Availability 
  • Exercise 12 
  • Selected NA (Bellcore) Definitions 
  • ITU-R Related Definitions
    • Hypothetical Reference Connection G.821
    • Worst Month and Annual Parameters
  • Availability and Performance Recommendations 
    • ITU-T G.821
    • ITU-R F.696-based PDH MW Link Design Guidelines
    • Exercise 13
    • Availability Recommendation ITU-R F.557
    • ITU-T G.826/828
    • Basic Sections of the National Portion of HRC
    • ITU-R F.1668
    • National Portion Short Haul
    • ITU-T G.829, ITU-R F.1703
  • Exercise 14
  • Comparing NA and ITU-R

Protection and Diversity 

  • The Need for Protection 
  • Definitions of Protection Schemes and Arrangements 
  • Levels of Protection 
  • Types of Protection 
  • Ring Protection 
  • Diversity Arrangements 
    • Frequency Diversity
    • Exercise 15
    • Space Diversity
    • SD Improvement Factor
    • Exercise 16
    • Angle Diversity
    • Combination of Diversities
    • Relative Effectiveness

Day 5

Frequency Planning and Interference Analysis 

  • Setting Up the Frequency Plan 
  • International Frequency Plans 
  • Frequency Planning Rules 
  • Exercise 17 
    • Two-Frequency Plan
    • Four-Frequency Plan
    • Meshed Networks
  • Interference in Digital Networks 
  • Exercise 18
    • Co-channel Interference
    • Adjacent Channel Interference
    • Receiver Threshold Degradation
    • Exercise 19
    • Interference Mitigation
    • Planning Considerations

Passive Repeaters 

  • Exercise 20
  • Step-by-step Procedure of MW Hop Design 
  • Alignment, Testing and Maintenance 
    • Causes of Unavailability
    • Subrefractive Fade
    • Superrefractive Fade
  • Static and Dynamic Testing 
  • Antenna Alignment 
  • Other Problems 
  • Troubleshooting Procedure