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49 - LONG - Long-Term Programs


LONG 221 - Electrical & Automation Engineering (39 Weeks)

Code Start Date Duration Venue Fees
LONG 221 06 September 2021 39 Weeks Istanbul $ 16000 Registration Form Link
LONG 221 01 November 2021 39 Weeks Istanbul $ 16000 Registration Form Link
LONG 221 27 December 2021 39 Weeks Istanbul $ 16000 Registration Form Link
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Course Description

This course is aimed at benefiting those engineers and technicians who need to design, commission and maintain automation and process control systems using Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC's).

The objective of the course is to provide the practicing engineer and technician with the necessary tools to design, specify, configure, install and commission a complete PLC system. The main challenge today is for engineers and technicians to make optimum use of their plant and equipment through automation and process control techniques.

The result of effective automation and process control are products, which cost less and have more controllable quality levels. 

The PLC is one of the key components in achieving this productivity improvement. PLCs in the past have differed widely in their programming and hardware structure. However there has been a rapid convergence today between different systems from the different manufacturers.

Note: Fee applies to 5+ participants attending the same course

Course Objectives

  • Understadning the fundamental operating principles behind using a PLC.
  • Discussing Good installation practice.
  • Discussing on programming PLCs.
  • Exploring the PLC as part of a complete Local Area Network The PLC and the operator interface.
  • Learning about High Security PLC systems.
  • Being aware of the guidelines to troubleshooting of PLCs.
  • Understanding PLC project specification.

Who Should Attend?

  • Electrical and Instrument Engineers and Supervisors.
  • Operation Engineers and Operation Supervisors

Course Details/Schedule

Week 1

  • Introduction to Programmable Controllers
  • Definition 
  • Principles of Operation 
  • PLCs Versus Other Types of Controls 
  • PLC Product Application Ranges 
  • Ladder Diagrams and the PLC 
  • Advantages of PLCs 
  • Number Systems and Codes
  • Number Systems 
  • Number Conversions 
  • One’s and Two’s Complement 
  • Binary Codes 
  • Register Word Formats 

Week 2

  • Logic Concepts
  • The Binary Concept 
  • Logic Functions 
  • Principles of Boolean Algebra and Logic 
  • PLC Circuits and Logic Contact Symbology 

Week 3

  • Programming Devices
  • Introduction 
  • Processors 
  • Processor Scan
  • The System Power Supply 
  • The Memory System and I/O Interaction
  • Memory Overview 
  • Memory Types 
  • Memory Structure and Capacity 
  • Memory Organization and I/O Interaction 
  • Configuring the PLC Memory I/O Addressing 
  • Summary of Memory, Scanning, and I/O Interaction 
  • Memory Considerations 

Week 4

  • The Discrete Input/Output System
  • Introduction to Discrete I/O Systems 
  • I/O Rack Enclosures and Table Mapping 
  • Remote I/O Systems 
  • PLC Instructions for Discrete Inputs 
  • Types of Discrete Inputs 
  • PLC Instructions for Discrete Outputs 
  • Discrete Outputs 
  • Discrete Bypass/Control Stations 
  • Interpreting I/O Specifications 
  • Summary of Discrete I/O

Week 5

  • The Analog Input/Output System
  • Overview of Analog Input Signals 
  • Instructions for Analog Input Modules 
  • Analog Input Data Representation 
  • Analog Input Data Handling 
  • Analog Input Connections 
  • Overview of Analog Output Signals 
  • Instructions for Analog Output Modules 
  • Analog Output Data Representation 
  • Analog Output Data Handling
  • Analog Output Connections 
  • Analog Output Bypass/Control Stations

 

Week 6

  • Special Function I/O and Serial Communication Interfacing
  • Introduction to Special I/O Modules 
  • Special Discrete Interfaces 
  • Special Analog, Temperature, and PID Interfaces 
  • Positioning Interfaces 
  • ASCII, Computer, and Network Interfaces 
  • Fuzzy Logic Interfaces 
  • Peripheral Interfacing 

Week 7

  • Programming Languages
  • Introduction to Programming Languages 
  • Types of PLC Languages 
  • Ladder Diagram Format 
  • Ladder Relay Instructions 
  • Ladder Relay Programming 
  • Timers and Counters 
  • Timer Instructions 
  • Counter Instructions 
  • Program/Flow Control Instructions 
  • Arithmetic Instructions 
  • Data Manipulation Instructions 
  • Data Transfer Instructions 
  • Special Function Instructions 
  • Network Communication Instructions

Week 8

  • System Programming and Implementation
  • Control Task Definition 
  • Control Strategy 
  • Implementation Guidelines 
  • Programming Organization and Implementation 
  • Discrete I/O Control Programming 
  • Analog I/O Control Programming
  • Short Programming Examples

Week 9

  • Data Measurements and Transducers
  • Basic Measurement Concepts 
  • Interpreting Errors in Measurements 
  • Transducer Measurements
  • Thermal Transducers 
  • Displacement Transducers 
  • Pressure Transducers 
  • Flow Transducers 
  • Vibration Transducers 
  • Process Responses and Transfer Functions
  • Process Control Basics 
  • Control System Parameters 
  • Process Dynamics 
  • Laplace Transform Basics 
  • Dead Time Responses in Laplace Form 
  • Lag Responses in Laplace Form 
  • Types of Second-Order Responses 

Week 10

  • Process Controllers and Loop Tuning
  • Controller Actions 
  • Discrete-Mode Controllers 
  • Continuous-Mode Controllers 
  • Proportional Controllers (P Mode) 
  • Integral Controllers (I Mode) 
  • Proportional-Integral Controllers (PI Mode) 
  • Derivative Controllers (D Mode) 
  • Proportional-Derivative Controllers (PD Mode) 
  • Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controllers (PID Mode) 
  • Advanced Control Systems 
  • Controller Loop Tuning 

Week 11

  • Local Area Networks
  • History of Local Area Networks 
  • Principles of Local Area Networks 
  • Network Topologies 
  • Network Access Methods
  • Communication Media 
  • Understanding Network Specifications 
  • Network Protocols 
  • Network Testing and Troubleshooting 
  • Network Comparison and Selection Criteria 

Week 12

  • I/O Bus Networks
  • Introduction to I/O Bus Networks 
  • Types of I/O Bus Networks 
  • Advantages of I/O Bus Networks
  • Device Bus Networks 
  • Process Bus Networks 
  • I/O Bus Installation and Wiring Connections 

Week 13

  • Logical Sensors
  • Sensor Wiring 
  • Switches 
  • Transistor- Transistor Logic (TTL) 
  • Sinking/Sourcing 
  • Solid State Relays 
  • Contact Switches 
  • Reed Switches 
  • Optical (Photoelectric) Sensors 
  • Capacitive Sensors 
  • Inductive Sensors 
  • Ultrasonic

Week 14

  • Logical Sensors
  • Solenoids 
  • Valves 
  • Cylinders 
  • Hydraulics 
  • Pneumatics 
  • Motors 

Week 15

  • PLC Start-Up and Maintenance
  • PLC System Layout 
  • Power Requirements and Safety Circuitry 
  • Noise, Heat, and Voltage Considerations 
  • I/O Installation, Wiring, and Precautions 
  • PLC Start-Up and Checking Procedures 
  • PLC System Maintenance 
  • Troubleshooting the PLC System 

Week 16

  • The man–machine interface HMI
  • Simple digital control and indicators 
  • Numerical outputs and inputs 
  • Numerical outputs 
  • Multiplexed outputs 
  • Leading zero suppression
  • Numerical inputs

Week 17

  • Background to SCADA
  • Fundamental principles of modern SCADA 
  • SCADA hardware 
  • SCADA software 
  • Landlines for SCADA 
  • SCADA and local area networks 
  • Modem use in SCADA systems 
  • Computer sites and troubleshooting 
  • System implementation 

Week 18

  • SCADA systems, hardware and firmware
  • Comparison of the terms SCADA, DCS, PLC and smart instrument 
  • SCADA system 
  • Distributed control system (DCS) 
  • Programmable logic controller (PLC) 
  • Smart instrument 
  • Considerations and benefits of SCADA system 
  • Remote terminal units 
  • Control processor (or CPU) 
  • Analog input modules 

Week 19

  • Typical analog input modules 
  • Analog outputs 
  • Digital inputs 
  • Counter or accumulator digital inputs 
  • Digital output module 
  • Mixed analog and digital modules 
  • Communication interfaces 33
  • Power supply module for RTU 
  • RTU environmental enclosures 
  • Testing and maintenance 
  • Typical requirements for an RTU system
  • The master station 
  • System SCADA software 
  • Local area networks 
  • Ethernet 
  • Token ring LANs
  • Token bus network
  • Master station software

Week 20

  • SCADA systems software and protocols 
  • The components of a SCADA system 
  • SCADA key features 
  • The SCADA software package 
  • Redundancy 
  • System response time 
  • Expandability of the system 

Week 21

  • Specialized SCADA protocols 
  • Introduction to protocols 
  • Information transfer 
  • High level data link control (HDLC) protocol 
  • The CSMA/CD protocol format 
  • Standards activities

Week 22

  • Distributed network protocol 
  • Interoperability
  • Open standard
  • IEC and IEEE 
  • Development 
  • Physical layer 
  • Physical topologies 
  • Modes 
  • Datalink layer 
  • Transport layer (pseudo-transport) 96
  • Application layer

Week 23

  • Modems
  • Review of the modem
  • Synchronous or asynchronous
  • Modes of operation 
  • Components of a modem 
  • Modem receiver 
  • Modem transmitter

Week 24

  • The RS-232/RS-422/RS-485 interface standards 
  • The RS-232-C interface standard for serial data communication
  • Electrical signal characteristics 
  • Interface mechanical characteristics
  • Functional description of the interchange circuits 
  • The sequence of asynchronous operation of the RS-232 interface 
  • Synchronous communications 
  • Disadvantages of the RS-232 standard
  • The RS-422 interface standard for serial data communications
  • The RS-485 interface standard for serial data communications

Week 25

  • Modulation techniques 
  • Amplitude modulation (or amplitude shift keying) 
  • Frequency modulation (or frequency shift keying  FSK) 
  • Phase modulation (or phase shift keying (PSK)) 
  • Quadrature amplitude modulation (or QAM) 
  • Trellis coding 
  • DFM (direct frequency modulation)

Week 26

  • Central site computer facilities
  • Recommended installation practice
  • Environmental considerations
  • Earthing and shielding 
  • Cabling 
  • Power connections 
  • Ergonomic requirements 
  • Typical control room layout 
  • Lighting 
  • Sound environment 
  • Ventilation
  • Colors of equipment

Week 27

  • Electrical Distribution Systems.
  • Power system structure
  • Transmission and Distribution (T&D) systems
  • Substations: main components
  • Power transformers
  • Switching equipment
  • Instrument transformers
  • Substations: auxiliary and control systems
  • Relay protection
  • Metering systems

Week 28

  • Auxiliary AC/DC power systems
  • Station alarm and remote control systems
  • Typical substation switching systems
  • Insulation coordination
  • Substation safety and fire protection
  • Power lines
  • Mission and main types of power lines
  • Underground cable lines
  • Reactive power and voltage regulation
  • Reactive power regulation
  • Voltage regulation
  • Power Factor Correction
  • Low voltage distribution systems
  • Grounding and lightning protection
  • Note: Power Distribution System is simulated by ETAP Software.

Week 29

  • Circuit breaker principles & operation, MCCB coordination
  • Need for circuit protection 
  • Circuit breaker design
  • Types of circuit breakers
  • Air circuit breaker
  • HV vacuum C.B
  • SF6 C.B
  • Circuit breaker ratings
  • Time-current curves
  • Maintenance of air circuit breaker.

Week 30

  • Testing of CB (over current tripping test)
  • Primary injection test.
  • Secondary injection test.
  • Control and operating test.
  • Insulation resistance test
  • Selective coordination of C.BS.
  • Solid-state trip unit circuit breakers 
  • Internal accessories
  • External accessories

Week 31

  • Electrical machines
  • Introduction to machinery principles
  • Ac machinery fundamentals
  • Synchronolls generators
  • Synchronolls motors 

Week 32

  • Three Phase Induction Motors
  • DC Machinery Fundamentals
  • DC Motors and Generators
  • Single-Phase and Special-Purpose Motors
  • Three-Phase Circuits

Week 33

  • Electrical transformers
  • Alternating current system
  • Magnitude of voltage
  • Inductive circuit
  • Electricity magnetism
  • Magnetic material
  • Electricity and magnetism terms
  • Transformer principle
  • Permeability and magnetizing characteristics
  • Hysteresis loop
  • Transformer inrush currents
  • Phasor diagram of transformer
  • Three phase vector
  • Transformer rating

Week 34

  • Transformer impedance
  • Three phase transformer
  • Power transformers 
  • Distribution transformers 
  • Phase-shifting transformers
  • Instrument transformers
  • Step-voltage regulators
  • Air cooled oil- immersed
  • Temperature limits
  • Transformer operation and maintenance
  • Transformers in services
  • Transformer inspection
  • Tap changer maintenance
  • Parallel operation
  • DC winding resistance test
  • Winding insulation test
  • Polarity test
  • No load test
  • Short circuit test
  • Impedance test
  • Moisture in transformer
  • Measurement of moisture content
  • Treatment of moisture
  • Oil Dielectric testing

Week 35

  • Introduction Electrical Protection System
  • Fundamentals of Protection Practice
  • Fundamental Theory
  • Fault Calculations
  • Equivalent Circuits and Parameters of
  • Power System Plant
  • Current and Voltage Transformers
  • Relay Technology

Week 36

  • Transformer and Transformer-Feeder Protection
  • Relay Technology
  • Generator and Generator-Transformer Protection
  • Industrial and Commercial Power System Protection
  • Motor Protection
  • Relay Testing and Commissioning
  • Power System Measurements

Week 37

  • Co-ordination procedure 
  • Principles of time/current grading
  • Standard I.D.M.T. overcurrent relays
  • Combined I.D.M.T. and high set
  • instantaneous overcurrent relays 
  • Very Inverse overcurrent relays
  • Extremely Inverse overcurrent relays 
  • Other relay characteristics 

Week 38

  • Uninterruptible Power Supply
  • H-Bridge Inverter
  • Basic operation
  • Single leg inverter
  • Synthesis of a Sinusoidal Output by PWM
  • Half bridge inverter
  • Full bridge inverter implementation
  • Three phase inverter
  • UPS systems basics 
  • Application of UPS systems
  • Types of UPS systems
  • Off Line UPS
  • On Line UPS
  • Line interactive UPS

Week 39

  • UPS components
  • UPS batteries 
  • Use of stationary batteries
  • Classification of charging system
  • Classification of batteries
  • Environmental conditions
  • Charging
  • Battery sizing
  • UPS I/ O sections
  • Monitoring systems
  • UPS interface
  • UPS static switches
  • UPS maintenance
  • UPS system testing and commissioning
  • UPS Operation and troubleshooting
  • UPS grounding and neutral configuration
  • Background information on system earthing arrangements
  • Applications in UPS installations
  • UPS Harmonics
  • UPS harmonics reduction filters