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34 - TCM - Telecommunications Technologies

TCM 512 - 3G Network Optimization and Link Planning

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Course Description

At the end of this four days course the students will understand the essentials required and involved in planning of microwave based access network for GSM and 3G. They will develop understanding of migration of transmission network towards all-IP environment. This course is designed to teach students the essence of microwave path planning. Once completed they will be able to design and maintain cost effective solutions. The students will also be learn how to design paths that will not suffer from interference, or disturb other radio systems in the vicinity.

Basic understanding of telecommunication is needed. 

The minimum number of participants required is 4 pax.


Course Objectives

  • Understanding of both TDM and packet radio planning
  • Developing knowledge of how Microwave links are planned for 3G Access and Core Networks
  • Using microwave TDM and packet radios at different frequencies
  • Using adaptive modulation ( only with packet radios) 
  • Identifying what components make up a total system and the significance of Layer 2 switching in 3G Transmissions access and core links

Course Overview

Networks are migrating quickly from GSM towards 3G and beyond. Basic drivers for such migration is the rising needs of data and cost effective planning and expansions of backhaul links. Using this course students are able to understand the needs of new traffic types and wisely adjust transmission network evolution to handle both existing and new traffic types.

Classroom discussion of all the above topics will be complemented by interactive student exercises. The course concludes with a guide to several ITU-T/ITU-R references, students can access for additional information.

With the emerging carrier Ethernet standards and the migration of mobile telephony technologies towards IP technologies, the microwave radio systems have an increased focus on the effective transport of packet based traffic and major radio vendors have introduced a new type of radio, commonly referred to as IP radio supporting high speed packet transport over microwave links.

Who Should Attend?

  • Telecommunications professionals
  • Transmission engineers
  • Network planners
  • Technical project managers who are involved in the area of planning, deployment, commissioning or operation of modern Radio-relay Digital Microwave Radio

Course Details/Schedule

Day 1

Microwave Link Planning

  • RR Network and System Specification
  • Map study and preparation of path profiles
  • Field survey and site determination
  • Determination of Antenna Heights
  • Path Calculations
  • Performance and availability
  • Frequency Spectrum Allocation
  • Equipment Specifications & Selection
  • MW Radio
  • Digital Modulation
  • Receiver Sensitivity
  • Signal Equalizers
  • Forward Error Correction (FEC)
  • Scrambling and Interleaving
  • Network Management
  • Types of Antenna
  • Antenna Gain 
  • VSWR, Cross-polarization Discrimination
  • Near Field versus Far Field
  • Antenna Misalignment
  • Transmission Lines (Feeders)
  • Economical Considerations

Link Budget Calculation

  • Transmission and Reception
  • Exercise 
  • Link Budget with Branching Circuitry

Day 2

Microwave Propagation

  • Free Space Propagation
  • Atmospheric Absorption
  • Rain Attenuation
  • Exercise 
  • Atmospheric Refraction
  • Refractive Ray Bending
  • Radio and Optical Refractivity
  • Gradient of Refractive Index
  • Anomalous Propagation
  • Exercise 
  • Substandard Refraction
  • Ducting and Blackout Fade
  • Fresnel Zones Concept
  • Clearance Criteria
  • Terrain Related Effects
  • Reflections (Analysis and Countermeasures)
  • Diffraction
  • Exercise 
  • Multipath Fading Mechanism-Flat Fading
  • Vigants Barnet Model
  • Exercise
  • ITU-R Rec. P.530-7
  • Frequency Selective Fading
  • Applicable Fade Margins
  • Radio Signature Curves
  • Exercise
  • Case study with SW Planning Tool Pathloss v.4.0

Link Performance and Availability Considerations

  • Basic Definitions of Reliability, Performance and Availability
  • Exercise
  • Selected NA (Bellcore) Definitions
  • ITU-R Related Definitions

Frequency Planning and Interference Analysis

  • Setting Up the Frequency Plan
  • International Frequency Plans
  • Frequency Planning Rules
  • Exercise 
  • Two-Frequency Plan
  • Four-Frequency Plan
  • Meshed Networks
  • Interference in Digital Networks
  • Co-channel Interference
  • Adjacent Channel Interference
  • Receiver Threshold Degradation
  • Interference Mitigation
  • Planning Considerations

Day 3

Overview for 3G and 4G Networks - The big picture

  • Data services requirements
  • Wireless network architectures
  • IP backhaul challenges
  • Applications; impact on IPBH

Wireless Networks Backhaul Overview

  • What is an IP backhaul network?
  • Transport technologies landscape
  • Various L1 and L2 protocols
  • “Access Network” transport solutions (e.g., TDM, ATM, Cable, and MW)
  • “Aggregation Network” transport solutions (e.g., SONET/SDH, EPON and RPR)
  • Worldwide BH preferences

IP and MPLS Basics

  • IP fundamentals
  • Integration of IP with MPLS

Microwave in Wireless Backhaul

  • Microwave access architecture options; pros and cons
  • Issues with Microwave access and their solution
  • Microwave vs. WiMAX in wireless backhaul

Day 4

Carrier Ethernet in IP Backhaul

  • Ethernet fundamentals
  • Carrier Ethernet (CE) and the Ethernet services model
  • CE attributes and the support for QoS
  • Role of Circuit Emulation (CESoE) and circuit bonding
  • Role of CE in IP backhaul

Wireless Backhaul Evolution Scenario

  • Flat vs. centralized network architecture
  • How traffic is mapped to 2G, 3G and 4G networks
  • 5-phase evolution example from 3G/4G to a converged cell site using carrier Etherne tbackhaul

Backhaul Capacity Planning

  • Diffusion modeling to forecast 2G, 3G, and 4G subscribers